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Ford Island: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii -  December 7, 1941 (Article I)

Introduction

Ford Island was the epicenter of the attack on December 7, 1941. Its seaplane base had dozens of long-range PBY patrol bombers capable of locating the Japanese fleet after the attack. Along her coast were moored seven of the Pearl Harbor fleet’s nine battleships. Ford Island is also where the Pacific Fleet’s three carriers would have moored had they been in port that day. The attack destroyed nearly all of the patrol planes. It also disabled the Pacific Fleet’s battleship force, making it impossible for the U.S. to carry the fight to Japan to spoil the Japanese expansion in the Pacific.

Today, Ford Island is still an active military base. However, it is now possible for tourists to visit parts of this historic battlefield. Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor gives visitors access to historic Hangar 37 and Hangar 79 and is in the process of renovating the famous control tower. The museum will eventually expand to include Hangar 54. This is the first in a series of articles on Ford Island as it existed on December 7, 1941.

The Surrounding Area

Figure 1 shows Pearl Harbor and the surrounding area. Ford Island is in the middle of the harbor.

Figure 1: Pearl Harbor and Hickam Field, October 30, 1941 80-G-182874

On the eastern shore is the Navy Yard, where heavy repairs were done. The USS Pennsylvania (BB-28), the flagship of the battle fleet was in dry dock for overhaul. In the second wave of the attack, dive bombers damaged the Pennsylvania heavily damaged the destroyers USS Cassin (DD-372), USS Shaw (DD-373), and USS Downes (DD-375). On the 1010 Dock closest to Ford Island, the light cruiser USS Helena (CL-50) and the minelayer USS Oglala (CM-4) were moored during the attack. Both were sunk by a Japanese torpedo but were later restored. The Helena was lost at the Battle of Kula Gulf in 1943.

Many Japanese torpedo planes flew along the East Loch to get the longest possible straight runs for dropping their torpedoes. This put the battleships USS Oklahoma and USS West Virginia in an almost direct line. Of the 40 torpedoes dropped by Japanese aircraft, approximately 14 hit these two ships.

Note that Hickam Field, which was the U.S. Army Air Forces bomber field in Hawaii, is adjacent to Pearl Harbor. Today, the two bases are combined into Joint Base Pearl Harbor Hickam.

The figure also shows the narrow sea channel between the Pacific Ocean and Pearl Harbor. If a major ship had been sunk in the harbor while escaping, other ships could not leave or enter the harbor.

Finally, the figure shows oil storage near the submarine base. Admiral Nagano has been criticized for not launching a third wave to destroy the oil storage tanks throughout Pearl Harbor and ship repair facilities in the Navy Yard.

Ford Island

Figure 2 takes a closer look at Ford Island. This picture was taken on October 10, 1941. If it looks familiar to visitors to Pacific Aviation Museum, this is because the photograph was the basis for the Dru Blair mural that visitors see when they enter the main floor of Hangar 37.

Figure 2: Ford Island, October 10, 1941. 80-G-279375

The label Battleship Row lies at the bottom of a set of quays used by the bulk of Pearl Harbor’s battleships. On the day of the attack, the battleships Oklahoma (BB-37), Maryland (BB-46), West Virginia (BB-48), Tennessee (BB-43), Arizona (BB-39), and Nevada (BB-36) were moored there. The USS California (BB-44) was moored farther down at Quay F-3, just behind where the USS Enterprise is in the October, 1941 picture (at Quay F-2) [1]. These battleships bore the brunt of the torpedo, high-level bombing, and dive bombing attacks on Pearl Harbor that day. The USS Pennsylvania (BB-38), the other battleship in port that day, was in the Navy Yard undergoing overhaul. The other battleship in the Pearl Harbor force was the USS Colorado (BB-45). She was in undergoing overhaul on the West Coast.

No aircraft carriers were in port that day. The USS Enterprise (CV-6) was scheduled to have returned from dropping off 12 F4F fighters at Wake Island, but it was delayed by heavy seas. As noted in an earlier blog article, the Enterprise was normally moored where it was in Figure 2. The USS Lexington (CV-2) and the USS Saratoga (CV-3) normally moored on the other side of the island, where the USS Utah (AG-16) was moored on the day of the attack. On the day of the attack, Lexington was on its way to delivery dive bombers to Midway Island. Saratoga had just finished a refit and was entering San Diego’s harbor to pick up its air wing. The survival of these carriers was critical for the first year of the war.

The lower right corner of Pearl Harbor is the seaplane base. This base had four squadrons of Consolidated PBY Catalina patrol bombers. These aircraft had an operational radius of operation of 700 miles, so they could have found the Japanese fleet long after its attack. The seaplane base also was the servicing area for catapult-launched aircraft on cruisers and battleships when these ships were in port. Due to a communication mix-up, Japanese dive bombers hit the seaplane base at 7:55, almost five minutes before their torpedo bombers arrived to attack the battleships. The seaplane base is now home to Pacific Aviation Museum and active Navy facilities. Its landmark feature was the control tower in the airfield Operations Building. The photo shows that the tower was unfinished in October, 1941, just as it was on the day of the attack.

At the opposite side of the island was the servicing area for carrier aircraft when the carriers were in port. This area had been a U.S. Army Air Corps base, Luke Field, until 1939. It was often still referred to as “Luke Field” despite the fact that it was then a Navy facility. The runway, by the way, was never called Luke Field. “Field” was the U.S. Army Air Corps and U.S. Army Air Forces name for an air base, not for the base runway.

References
[1] U.S. Navy History and Heritage Command, Pearl Harbor Raid, 7 December 1941: "Battleship Row" during the Pearl Harbor Attack, http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/pearlhbr/ph-bba.htm
Post by Ray Panko

Comments on “Ford Island: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii -  December 7, 1941 (Article I)

  1. susan allen hunt on 2014 08 19 said:

    Any information on the sea plane history.
    did the Pan Am Clipper ever use the terninal at Ford Island.
    Did the US Navy ever have a large cargo/pax type sea plane for transport in use between HI and the States. A US Navy vet circa 1947-1954 claims to have flown stateside from Pearl Harbor in 1950 on one. Any history and information would be greatly appreciated.  Thank you.

  2. Administrator on 2014 01 11 said:

    Michael, I’ll find out, thank you!

  3. Michael Fraering/Port Hudson State Historic Site on 2014 01 11 said:

    Is there a listing of Navy aircraft stationed at Ford Island on December 7, 1941?

  4. Arnold Cairns on 2013 12 07 said:

    Have been to Ohau a few times and never miss a trip to Pear Harbor.  In fact I have been at the Arizona Memorial on three different times On December 7, the most memorable time was a Sunday in 1997.  I enjoyed the information on the location of the aircraft carriers during the attack, and was very curious as to where they would have been moored.  I have never bee to your museum but will try very hard to get there before I kick the bucket.  Thanks again for the information.  Retired from the California National Guard

  5. Jennifer on 2012 07 30 said:

    I was unaware that the USS Missouri is on dlipsay in Pearl Harbor. When I was in Hawaii in 1986, I had a day to myself before my travel buddies arrived. I took a Circle Island Tour of Oahu. Our driver and tour guide was a Navy vet and native Hawaiian. He had taken an honorable discharge from his ship   the USS Missouri   a few weeks before the attack in 1941. He re-enlisted, naturally, and was on the USS Missouri when the surrender was signed in Tokyo Harbor. It was incredible to talk with him. Sadly, the other tourists on the tour weren’t too interested in what they considered ancient history. Their loss.

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